Amethyst is a macrocrystalline variety of the mineral Quartz (SiO2). Quartz is the most abundant single mineral on earth. 

Amethyst is a variety of quartz and its chemical makeup is composed of silicon dioxide. Quartz is formed in lava, specifically when gas bubbles become trapped, allowing crystals to form inside the cavities created by the bubbles. It is a transparent, coarse-grained variety of the silica mineral quartz that is valued as a semiprecious gem for its violet color. 

At its most basic, amethyst is simply purple quartz (silicon dioxide). Like many minerals, quartz comes in a wide variety of colors, but amethyst is the most valuable of them. However, these crystals become amethyst with the addition of iron impurities and radiation from the surrounding rocks. 

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